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GraphistThem252

آنچه به نام شهر زير زميني معروف است در واقع ساختارهاي متراكم، پيچيده و گسترده اي چون دالانهاي باريك تودرتو و اتاقهايي با ابعاد كوچك است. مجموعه اويي در زير بافت قديم شهر شكل گرفته و تا سطح كنوني شهر نيز گسترده شده است. وسعت اين شهر به دليل ارتباط ميان محلات و حفاظت از جان و مال مردم در مواقع ناامني زياد بوده و در دو سطح افقي و عمودي گسترش يافته است. اين معماري دست كن در شهر نوش آباد با واژه " اويي " ناميده مي شود.
غير از ورودي اصلي ارتفاع تمام قسمتهاي اويي به قد طبيعي يك انسان و بين 170 تا 180 سانتيمتر است. بر سطح ديوارها و در فواصل اندك، جاي پيه سوز به چشم مي خورد. در بعضي قسمتها نيز درون ديوار، سكو هاي كوتاهي جهت نشستن ايجاد شده است كه در بعضي از اتاقها تبديل به طاقچه جهت قرار دادن اشياء مي شود.
سيستم تهويه شهر زير زميني نوش آباد از طريق كانالهايي بوده كه در طبقه اول و به سطح زمين ايجاد شده است .چاه هاي مرتبط طبقات، علاوه بر عملكرد عبور و مرور، باعث جريان يافتن هوا در طبقات پايين مي شده است . اين عمل در مورد چاههاي قنات نيز مصداق دارد .
دسترسي به اين فضاها ،به دليل قرار گرفتن در زير زمين از طريق يك چاه و كانال باريك و كوتاه ميسر مي گردد. موضوع تدافعي و پناهگاه بودن اين نوع معماري كه در دل زمين ايجاد شده تأثير فراواني بر چگونگي ارايه پلان معماري آن گذاشته است. بنابراين در خصوص ورودي، دسترسي به اين فضاها نمي بايست به سهولت انجام بپذيرد.
روشنايي اين فضاها بوسيله پيه سوز هاي سفالي بوده و روغن آنها احتمالا از دو عصار خانه تاريخي موجود در نوش آباد تهيه مي شده است. در مواقع نا امني و پناه گرفتن در زير زمين آب مصرفي اهالي از پايابها و قناتها تامين مي شده است. علاوه بر پايابها مسير اويي ها بگونه اي بوده كه در بعضي از قسمتها به قنات مرتبط مي شده است .
تاريخ ايجاد و استفاده از اين بناها به دوران ساساني و اوايل اسلام مي رسد كه در دورانهاي بعد يعني سلجوقي تا صفويه و حتي قاجار مورد استفاده بوده است .
اين مجموعه ارزشمند به شماره 15816 و به سال 1385 ثبت در فهرست آثار ارزشمند ملي گرديده است.

Acquaintance with noosh-Abad Historical town:
Noosh-Abad is one lf the environs central part of Aran va Bidgol township from Esfahan Province Lie on the Height 900 Meter from sea surface and with geographical coordinates 51 26 Length and 34 05 width and with 7.5 kilometer distance from kashan historical city and 2.5 kilometer distance from Aran va Bidgol historical township. This town has dry and warm weather in the summer and rough and cold weather in the winter. Noosh-Abad has 31 hectare historical tissue and has 10476 person population according to statistic in 2006. As written in the Qom history book (written in 990):
"This Village called Anoosh-Abad because one of the Sasanian Passing from that region and arrived to a spring and found that spring and region good then ordered until village a village on that region and called there Anoosh Abad."
Brick castle is related to salajeghe ago and made from crude brick and soil with one hectore space and has 9 towers for observation. This castle was martial but found residential usage in latter ages.
Early mosque with high and imposing minaret lie in the central part of historical Town and in the neighbor hood of Takhtegah location. As people say, at the First this document and also has not done any research.
Takhtegah is a place that inhabitants say it was Anoushirvan court and had a chain that it was joined to heaven and if a guilty person took this chain and swore to his/her innocence, he or she went to the sky. This place was not safekeeping unfortunately. This belief of people has accordance with Qom history narrative about Noosh-Abad.
Noosh-Abad religion that also nowadays fresh and dynamic emphasis on it between people show great interest of these people on shiism and their religious tenets that we can refer to caravan of second and eighth moharam days, Tosoua customs, Ashoura customs, eleventh day customs, twelfth day customs, Steep hill customs, dead customs, Fatemiyeh time customs, water-cavvier customs. Hoorbabaei customs and Vows species (traditional foods).
Also desert Noosh-Abad zone has several historical works Like Various castles with names of: Jalal-Abad, Fakhr-Abad, Di-mourchon, sizan, shoja-Abad, Feiz-Abad, Vazir (or queen) and herbaceous Layer and Suitable soil for touring activities.
There is not remain any sign of ancient crafts Like: Knitting, weaving and silk worm breeding but carpet weaving still has role in the people economical and social cycle. More over said works Noosh-Abad has religious structures.
Lide Ali mosque (made in salajeghe ago), Feiz-Abad pilgrimage, Eshagh-Abad historical bridge, several aqueducts and most important diligent and devoted people that promises a successful future for it.

Oui Hand–Digging architecture (underground city):
What are well known to under ground city indeed is wide, dense and complex structures as narrow corridor and rooms with small dimension. Oui collection formed under ancient texture town and being widespread until town current surface. Extent of this town is wide because of relation between sectors and safekeeping from life and wealth people in insecure situation and it is widespread in both horizontal and vertical levels. This hand- digging architecture called with "oui" word in Noosh-Abad town.
Except main entrée height of all oui parts is size of a man natural length and between 170 until 180 centimeter on the walls surface and in short distance seen tallow – burner places and also built short platforms for sit in some parts inside the wall that in some rooms it change to Ledge for putting the objects.
Ventilation system of Noosh- Abad underground city was through canals that created on the first class and in the ground surface. Moreover traffic work, classes related shafts caused to air flow in bottom classes.
This issue has certified in aqueduct shaft too.
Because situated in underground, access to these places is possible through a short and narrow canal and shaft.
Defender object and being shelter of this architecture sort that created in the heart of ground has more influence on the quality representation of its architecture plan. Therefore about entrance door. Access to these places have not done easily.
Light of these places were created by clay tallow- burners and their oil obtained from two available historical oil- pressing houses in Noosh-Abad. In insecurity situations and refuge in underground , people drinking water became available from shallows and aqueducts. Moreover shallows oui routed were related to aqueducts in some parts.
These places had created and had used from the end of Sasanian's era until Safavieh's era
This worthwhile collection becomes registries in the national worthwhile collection with 15816 number at 2006.

شما كافيست جهت مشاهده تصاوير شهر زير زميني به قسمت گـــالـــــري  (Gallery) سايت مراجعه نماييد .

درباره شهر اويي

بررسي ويژگيهاي شهر زيرزميني «اويي» در كاشان از لحاظ اصول و اهداف پدافند غير عامل

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